The invasive ecosystem engineer Ammophila arenaria, was first introduced to California in 1896 and has come to dominate coastal foredune vegetation on the west coast of North America to the near exclusion of native species.
A. arenaria has modified dune processes by fixing the foredune and disrupting exchange of sediment between the beach, foredune, and dunefield. Restoration of west coast dunes through the removal of Ammophila began in the 1990s.
Manual removal has proven most effective at restoring foredune form and process but is expensive. Excavation and herbicides may result in the loss of foredune morphology. Managers must articulate goals carefully before selecting restoration methods. View Full-Text
Pickart, A.J. Ammophila Invasion Ecology and Dune Restoration on the West Coast of North America. Diversity 2021, 13, 629. https://doi.org/10.3390/d13120629